Doctor of Pharmacy, Professor
National University of Pharmacy
National University of Pharmacy
PhD in Economics, Associate Professor
National University of Pharmacy
доктор фармацевтичних наук, професор
Національний фармацевтичний університет
Національний фармацевтичний університет
кандидат економічних наук, доцент
Національний фармацевтичний університет
METHODS OF ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHARMACY SPECIALISTS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY
МЕТОДИКА ОЦІНЮВАННЯ ВПЛИВУ СОЦІАЛЬНО-ПСИХОЛОГІЧНИХ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИК ФАХІВЦІВ ФАРМАЦІЇ НА ЕФЕКТИВНІСТЬ ЙОГО ПРОФЕСІЙНОЇ ДІЯЛЬНОСТІ
Summary: The urgency of the definition of the influence of professionally important socio-psychological characteristics of the pharmacy specialist on the effectiveness of his activity and the efficiency of the functioning of the pharmacy institution is investigated. The method of estimating the influence of socio-psychological characteristics of pharmacists on the pharmacy institution effectiveness is proposed.
Key words: professionally important social and psychological characteristics, pharmacy technician, effectiveness, pharmaceutical establishment.
Анотація: Досліджено актуальність визначення впливу професійно важливих соціально-психологічних характеристик фахівця фармації на результативність його діяльності та ефективність функціонування аптечного закладу. Запропоновано методику оцінювання впливу соціально-психологічних характеристик фахівців фармації на ефективність діяльності аптечного закладу.
Ключові слова: професійно важливі соціально-психологічні характеристики, фахівець фармації, результативність, аптечний заклад.
Introduction. In the conditions of high competition of pharmacy establishments, introduction of requirements of proper pharmacy practice and implementation of European legislation in the field of pharmacy, the main task of the professional activity of pharmacists is to preserve human health. This is due to the fact that the pharmaceutical aid includes timely and high-quality provision of the patient with medicinal products, medical products and parapharmaceutical products, provision of pharmaceutical care and informing patients about responsible self-care, participation in pharmacovigilance and preventive measures, as well as improving the professionalism of pharmacy staff, etc. [1-2]. At the same time, the main requirements and principles that are put forward by the proper pharmacy practice of GPP to the specialists of pharmacy, is «consumer orientation», namely helping him in choosing the most effective drug, disease prevention, etc.
Analysis of recent research. The problems of social and psychological qualities (characteristics) of modern science has not yet been resolved . Thus, investigating the professional communicative competence of future pharmacists, L.V. Plyaka highlights the need to develop certain individual psychological qualities from the specialists of pharmacy under the scheme «competence → abilities → personal qualities», but its research is limited to the study of exclusively those psychological structures of the personality of a specialist, which provide the process of professional communication in the pharmacy.
In others we reviewed scientific papers presented studies of individual psychological characteristics and qualities of pharmacists: affiliation and communicative tolerance (A.A. Kotvitska, A.S. Nemchenko, N.V. Teterich, L.V. Plyaka), communicative qualities (N.V. Alekhina, L.G. Kaidalova, L.V. Plyaka), empathy (L.V. Plyakа, O.P. Choronipiska, V.S. Shapovalova), social intelligence (N.V. Alekhina, K. O. Demyanik, A.A. Kotvitska, N.V. Teterich), leadership qualities (O.O. Slyusarenko), value orientations (O. Semenyuk), personal social responsibility (N.O. Tkachenko), person professional orientation (I.B. Konyashina), professional self-awareness (N.V. Shvarp) [4-19]. The works of A.A. Kotvitskaya, N.A. Vetutneva, G.V. Zagoriy, M. S. Ponomarenko, S.G. Ubogova, T. Yu. Shafranskaya touched upon the importance of professional ethical personal qualities of pharmacists [20-23]. All these qualities have a different impact on the performance of a pharmacy specialist and the efficiency of a pharmacy institution.
Selection of previously unsettled parts of the general problem. The sales process in a pharmacy starts at a moment when the visitor crosses its threshold. An expert in pharmacy can influence this process by means of communication with the visitor and his ability to listen to him, to advise him effective medicines, but only due to the high level of professionally important social and psychological characteristics a pharmacist can, on the one hand, satisfy the requirements of the pharmacy visitor, and, on the other hand, ensure the appropriate level of competitiveness of the pharmacy institution.
Based on the research, it has been established that the professionally important socio-psychological characteristics of a pharmacy specialist are a system of optimal individual psychological characteristics and social qualities that influence the effectiveness of his professional activities, taking into account the requirements of domestic and international legislation in the field of pharmacy and GPP pharmacy practice.
Goals and tasks: The purpose of the study is to determine the dependence of the effectiveness of the professional activity of a pharmacy specialist on his socio-psychological characteristics.
Results. The analysis of the vacancies of pharmacy specialists listed on the websites of both domestic and foreign employers, questioning pharmacy specialists, doctors, pharmacy visitors and graduate students, as well as the regulatory framework regarding the professional activities of pharmacy specialists, allowed to form professionally important socio-psychological characteristics , which should have a specialist pharmacy. These characteristics are: absence of conflict, responsibility, balance, honesty, empathy, energy, initiative, intellectual lability, komandoorientovanist, mennoonfliktnost, creativity, thinking, morality, discipline, memory, patsientotsentrichnist, sense of duty, hard work, self-esteem, the ability to self-regulate emotions, stress , attention, honesty, dedication, value orientation, self-concept. All the selected professionally important socio-psychological characteristics are grouped into the following groups: psycho-emotional, intellectual, volitional (behavioral) and moral qualities, personal attitude, attitude of a specialist towards people, and attitude to work (pharmacy warehouse).
Each socio-psychological characteristic affects the professional competence of a pharmacy specialist, his professional and career advancement and promotes the effective solution of professional tasks. But the attraction of the consumer, in order to increase and obtain the height of stable profits by the pharmacy institution, requires the correct organization of the process of selling medicines, an understanding of the stage at which the consumer is located when making a decision on the purchase of drugs, recognition of the types of buyers, etc. A generalized reflection of the influence of professionally important socio-psychological characteristics of a pharmacy specialist on the effectiveness of their professional activities is shown in Fig.1.
Fig. 1. Influence of socio-psychological characteristics of specialists of pharmacy on the efficiency of their professional activity and the success of the functioning of the pharmacy institution
With the survey of visitors to pharmacies, his attitude towards the pharmacy and pharmacy specialists working in this establishment was determined. 913 respondents from all regions of Ukraine participated in the survey. Among them, 87% of women and 13% men. The majority of visitors come from people over 61 years of age. The opinions of the respondents are not accidental and justified, since the coefficient of concordance is equal to 0.81, the Pearson coefficient exceeds the table value.
The provision of high-level professional services by the pharmacist has a significant impact on the visitor of the pharmacy institution, but despite the high level of professionalism of a specialist, the low level of his socio-psychological characteristics leads to a backlash from the patient. The patient, coming to the pharmacy, wants not only to receive medicines or advice on responsible self-treatment, but also understanding, sympathy, kindness, a smile and a certain sense of humor. The results of the survey of the opinions of pharmacy visitors about the attitude are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2. Reaction patient’s attitude to his pharmacy specialists
It is also important for the patient of the pharmacy establishment (78.3% of respondents) to understand and recognize it at the re-visit of the pharmacy (87.1% of respondents expect a substantive communication about their problem, which will answer all the questions of concern to them and the specific advice on treatment).
According to the patient’s pharmacy technician is well oriented in the range of pharmaceutical products, which is in the pharmacy and that exists at all, have knowledge about the effectiveness and safety of drugs. The important thing for the patient is the smile of pharmacists (89.2% of respondents), sympathy (91.3%) and attention (93.8% of respondents), positive attitude (95.6% of respondents) and understanding (96.2% of respondents) pharmacists, receiving advice (98.1% of respondents). Therefore, the work of a pharmacy specialist requires considerable labor and emotional expenses, mental abilities, attention, and endurance during prolonged work, while he must perform his professional duties in a qualitative manner taking into account the uneven flow of patients at different times of the day and in different seasons. Thus, the process of providing pharmaceutical assistance to the patient begins with the time when he «crosses the threshold of the pharmacy», and to influence the outcome of this visit the pharmacist can only be in the process of communicating with him.
Once in the pharmacy, the patient immediately assesses his appearance, psychological atmosphere, quality and competence of the consultation of the pharmacist (assisting in finding the right drug), the breadth of the range of pharmaceutical products, individual approach to each client, speed and positivity of complaints, etc. d., a set of indicators of high-quality pharmaceutical service in the pharmacy. Apart from its appearance, cleanliness and purity, it must be careful, interested and able to persuade patients. Thus, according to experts (83.4% of respondents), 90% of successful sales depend on the ability to communicate to the patient the benefits of medicines.
In order to determine the impact on consumer satisfaction of professionally important socio-psychological characteristics of pharmacists, a pharmacy pharmacy was interviewed regarding the satisfaction of pharmacists provided by pharmacists of this pharmacy with pharmaceutical aid. The survey was conducted in the form of a questionnaire, evaluation was carried out on a tribal scale — unsatisfactory, average level of satisfaction, fully satisfying. At the same time, patients indicated information about the frequency of visits to a particular pharmacy. Based on the received data, a model of dependence of consumer satisfaction (Yсs) on the professionally important socio-psychological characteristics of pharmacy specialists was constructed:
Ycs =0,45 Кpsych + 3,458 Кbeh + 1,357 Кmor + 4,501 Кintellect +
+ 0,257 Кpers attitude + 4,025 Кattitude people + 1,354 Кattitude to pharm,
де Кpsych – psychoemotional qualities;
Кintellect – intellectual qualities;
Кbeh — volitional (behavioral) qualities;
Кmor — moral qualities;
Кpers attitude — personal attitude;
Кattitude people — the attitude of a specialist to people;
Кattitude to pharm— attitude to the case (pharmacy establishment).
Thus, upon entering the pharmacy, the buyer immediately assesses its appearance, psychological and emotional atmosphere, the quality of consultancy pharmacist (assistance in finding the right medicine), the possibility of consulting a doctor, a wide range of products, an individual approach to each client, etc.
Conclusions. Summing up, it can be concluded that the processes of pharmaceutical services for patients and the sale of pharmaceutical products directly depend on both professional competencies and the personal qualities of a pharmacy specialist. It is clear that he must be a professional in the field of pharmaceutical provision (according to the WHO, about 10% of hospitalizations are caused by misuse of medication), as well as continuous self-improvement and self-development. But the pharmacy patient is very different people. Each of them requires the selection of different approaches, arguments and arguments, while the pharmacist must determine at a glance the level of income, social status and state of the patient’s emotional system. Therefore, the socio-psychological characteristics of specialists in pharmacy have no less importance than professional ones — it’s easier to find a good person and make a professional from her than to find a professional and make a good person out of her. As practice shows, not always the correct actions of the pharmacist and the well-organized work of the pharmacy brings the desired effect to the patient and he moves to another institution, that is, to a competitor. In addition, the patient has to constantly feel its significance for the institution, creative approach, creativity and positive mood of the pharmacist. Thus, to increase the volume of pharmacy sales, and accordingly, the pharmacy sales, by providing qualified pharmaceutical services, will be able to specialist pharmacy, which has professional qualities (knowledge of the range, speed of information provision, etc.) and necessarily a certain set of professionally important socio-psychological characteristics (attentiveness, organization, responsibility, empathy, etc.).
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