The influence of the ecological state of the environment on congenital malformations in children

УДК – 57.02

Бабаев Маджнун Шыхбаба оглы1

Мамедова Рена Фирудин кызы2

1доктор биологических наук,

Профессор кафедры генетики и эволюционного учения

Бакинского Государственного университета

2доктор философии по биологии

ст. преподаватель кафедры генетики и эволюционного учения

Бакинского Государственного Университета

Babayev Majnun Shykhbaba oglu1

Mamedova Rena Firudin kyzy2

1doctor of Biological Sciences,

professor at the Department of Genetics and

evolutionary Studies Baku State University

2PhD in Biology

art. Lecturer at the Department of Genetics and

evolutionary Studies Baku State University

Babaev — M. Sh., Mamedova R.F.

Baku State University

AZ-1148, Azerbaijan, Baku,

st. Academician Zahid Khalilov, 23

e-mail: rena.mamedova2015@mail.ru

Бабаев М. Ш., Мамедова Р.Ф.

Бакинский Государственный Университет

AZ-1148, Азербайджан, Баку, ул. Академика Захида Халилова, 23

email: rena.mamedova2015@mail.ru

Влияние экологического состояния окружающей среды

на врожденные пороки развития у детей

Аннотация

В статье изложены основные причины зависимости врожденных пороков развития у детей от состояния окружающей среды. Приводятся примеры негативного влияния технологического прогресса на продолжительность жизни человека и возникновение так называемых «экоассоциируемых заболеваний», рассматривается характер загрязнения атмосферного воздуха высокими концентрациями различных химических элементов и соединений, рассматривается вопрос пассивного курения и его влияния на здоровье окружающих, в частности беременных женщин. В заключении отмечается острота проблемы организации и учета прогнозирования ВПР.

Ключевые слова: мутация, экология, профилактика, никотин, патология, инфекции, плод, атмосфера.

The influence of the ecological state of the environment

on congenital malformations in children

Abstract

The article describes the main reasons for the dependence of congenital malformations in children on the state of the environment. Examples of the negative impact of technological progress on human life expectancy and the emergence of so-called “eco-associated diseases” are given, the nature of atmospheric air pollution with high concentrations of various chemical elements and compounds is considered, the issue of passive smoking and its impact on the health of people around, in particular pregnant women are considered. In conclusion, the urgency of the problem of organizing and recording forecasting congenital malformations is noted.

Key words: mutation, ecology, prevention, nicotine, pathology, infections, fetus, atmosphere.

Throughout its existence, mankind has constantly sought to create a more comfortable living environment through the organization and implementation of the latest technological processes and production, the development of the transport network, the chemical, oil refining industry, etc. the planets. Ecological are called catastrophes that not only take people’s lives, but also lead to quite deplorable consequences for the environment. As a rule, such disasters are the result of human activity. After all, the development of modern technologies, in particular in the energy sector, provides not only tangible material benefits, but also, if misused, can lead to horrendous consequences.

The transport and industry used by humans consume a large amount of oxygen from the atmosphere, and at the same time, the person does not compensate for the losses and does not comply with the established standards for the purification of waste before they enter the atmosphere. Every year at least 1,250 million tons enter the atmosphere. carbon monoxide, up to 170 million tons sulfuric anhydride, 20 million tons nitrogen oxides, as well as hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine compounds, fluorine compounds and many other harmful chemical elements and compounds [6, p. 117-118].

Habitat is a complex factor contributing to the emergence of a variety of pathological processes and diseases in humans. At the same time, a complex of environmental factors is extremely diverse, has territorial features, is determined by the presence of active and potentially dangerous agents, which can either alone or in complex interaction with other factors cause disembryogenesis and ultimately contribute to the growth of common and specific frequencies of congenital malformations (CMF) in children in areas of high risk.

Pollution is the introduction into the environment or the emergence of new physical, chemical, informational or biological agents that are usually not characteristic of it, or an increase in the natural average long-term level (within its extreme fluctuations) concentration of the listed agents in the environment, often resulting in negative consequences. Pollution can occur as a result of natural causes (natural pollution) and under the influence of human activity — anthropogenic pollution, which is usually meant when discussing pollution problems [9].

Anthropogenic sources of air pollution are:

• burning of combustible minerals;

• operation of thermal power plants;

• exhausts of modern turbojets;

• production activities;

• contamination by suspended particles (during grinding, packing and loading, from boilers, power plants, shafts, quarries when burning garbage);

• gas emissions from enterprises;

• fuel combustion in flare furnaces (this produces the most massive pollutant — carbon monoxide) [9].

The causes of congenital malformations are different. This pathology can be hereditary. Most often this pathology occurs as a result of genetic mutations caused by the use of alcohol, drugs, exposure to ionizing radiation and other harmful factors. Congenital malformations can also be due to various deviations in the chromosomal sets of the father or mother, as well as a lack of vitamins in the diet of a pregnant woman, especially folic acid. There is undeniable evidence of the negative impact of technological progress on human life expectancy and the emergence of so-called «eco-associated diseases.» Congenital malformations (CMF) are recognized by many authors as indicators of the environmental problems of the environment. Many researchers have recently increasingly agreed that the formation of congenital anomalies is multifactorial, and when studying the risk factor for CMF, along with genetic predisposition, all aspects of parents’ lives, including the influence of environmental factors, xenobiotics, occupational hazards of parents, demographic and national aspects. age, lifestyle, presence of chronic pathology, etc. [1,2].

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 4-6% of children with CMF are born in the world every year, while the mortality rate is 30-40%. Congenital malformations are leading in the structure of causes of perinatal mortality. Studies conducted in different countries showed that the effect of congenital anomalies on the overall structure of infant mortality is increasing and that 25-30% of all perinatal losses are due to anatomical organ defects. Within 1 year of life, 25% of all child deaths are caused by congenital malformations [2].

In the atmospheric air of modern cities there are hundreds of substances of various chemical classes of organic and inorganic nature, coming from numerous sources, as a rule, of anthropogenic origin. The main sources of harmful substances in the atmospheric air of cities are motor vehicles and industrial enterprises. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account that each urban area has its own specific set of pollution due to the type of industry in a given territory. Each of these substances has a specific specificity of action on the human body [9].

The nature of air pollution is determined by the high concentrations of dust, carbon monoxide, as well as lead, benzopyrene, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, rubidium, etc. Especially this trend is observed in the republics of the former Soviet Union and European countries, where migrants from African, Arab and Asian countries have rushed in recent decades. The number of inhabitants of some large megapolises has increased almost twice in the last 20-30 years. This leads to a high population density and contributes to the increase in the percentage of vehicles that pollute the atmosphere with exhaust gas from petrochemical processing. According to literature data, all these substances have teratogenic properties [5].

Gasoline, benzene, phenol, dimethyldioxane, chloroprene, nitric oxide, ether, chloroform, metals and their salts, such as calcium chloride, mercury, lead, manganese salts, widely used in industry and agriculture tsirama, DDT, gentochlora, as well as lead and zinc whitewash, varnishes, have embryotoxic properties. Harmful occupational factors are one of the significant risk factors causing adverse trends in the health status of working women. The workers associated with exposure to chemical factors at work, the frequency of birth of a child with CDF is approximately 88 cases for every 1000 newborns. [4, 8, p. 31].

Table 1 lists some pollutants and reproductive health disorders.

Table 1.

Substance Violation
Ionizing radiation Infertility, microcephaly, chromosomal abnormalities, cancer in children.
Mercury Blindness, spontaneous abortions, deafness, mental retardation.
Lead Congenital malformations, low birth weight, Infertility, spontaneous abortions, affects the blood circulation and nervous system
Cadmium Low birth weight
Manganese Infertility
Arsenic Reducing the body weight of newborns,
Congenital malformations.
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons Fertility reduction
Chlorine-containing substances Congenital malformations, Disruption of the central nervous system, perinatal mortality
Dichlorethylene Congenital malformations (heart)
Benzene Low birth weight, ovarian atrophy
Organic solvents Congenital malformations, cancer in children
Anesthetics Low birth weight, tumors in the embryo, infertility
Carbon monoxide Slows reflexes, weakens mental abilities, causes drowsiness, etc.
Nitrogen oxides They irritate the lungs, cause bronchitis and pneumonia.

Unintentional inhalation of air filled with cigarette smoke is called passive smoking. Its danger lies in the absence of filtration. Among other things, passive smokers inhale products of metabolism — toxins exhaled by an active smoker along with smoke. The concentration of harmful substances in this case is 50 times higher than that of primary smoke from cigarettes. Passively pregnant smokers are also at risk. Tobacco smoke causes oxygen starvation and extremely negatively affects all processes of fetus formation in the mother. It can cause its prenatal death or miscarriage, as well as cause congenital deformities, the birth of a dead or non-viable infant [3].

In the smoker’s light portions of tobacco smoke come after passing the filter, while family members, employees, neighbors and passers-by are forced to inhale it in its original form. Nicotine as a production factor is found in enterprises associated with the production of tobacco and tobacco products, is extremely widespread in everyday life in the form of smoking, therefore, is of great social importance. Nicotine has a versatile effect on the body, because it contains a number of biologically active substances — methyl alcohol, pyridine bases, methylamine, ethyl mercaptan, etc. [3].

Children of passive smokers often have weak immunity. They are 11 times more likely to suffer from respiratory infections, prone to the development of atopic dermatitis. Passive smoking is one of the causes of sudden death of newborns and children under the age of 1 year. Feeding an infant in a room where people smoke has a detrimental effect on its nervous system [3].

Prevention of congenital malformations includes two groups of measures: individual, consisting in preventing the birth of a child with any defect in a given family (medical and genetic counseling), and mass. The activities of the second group envisage “improving the environment” (for example, terminating a nuclear test), thoroughly testing for mutagenicity and teratogenicity of drugs, herbicides, improving working conditions for workers in a number of occupations with hazardous working conditions (employees of nuclear power plants, radiologists, people working with radioactive isotopes, etc. [7, p. 54].

Embryopathy is the pathology of the embryo from the 16th day of pregnancy to the 75th day, inclusive, during which the formation of the main organs and the formation of the placenta are completed. The main types of embryopathy are CDF (congenital malformations), i.e., persistent morphological changes in an organ, body part or the whole organism, going beyond the limits of normal structure variations, leading to impaired function. Embryopathy prevention includes a set of measures to protect the environment, prevent air pollution, water, soil with various chemical compounds that have a toxic effect, stop testing atomic weapons, improve the working conditions of workers in certain professions (working with radioactive isotopes, radiologists, etc.) limit the use of female labor in hazardous industries. Individual prevention includes measures to comply with sanitary-hygienic and moral standards and exemption from bad habits of future parents, carrying out recreational activities in the presence of chronic foci of infections, especially the genitourinary sphere. When treating pregnant women, it is necessary to avoid drugs that can adversely affect the fetus. X-ray examination of pregnant women should be carried out only for health reasons [4].

Conclusion

Congenital malformations constitute one of the serious problems not only of health care, but also of the state as a whole, since their treatment, as well as a high level of disability of children, require huge material costs and are one of the causes of infant mortality. The level of air pollution is only one of the risk factors for the formation of congenital pathology in children. In most cases, it is possible to establish the multifactorial nature of congenital anomalies. In this regard, it remains relevant to search for the most informative risk factors for their formation, allowing to predict the likelihood of this pathology and plan preventive measures to prevent the birth of children with birth defects.

Thus, given the ever-increasing number of newborns with congenital developmental pathology, and mortality from this pathology at different periods of life, as well as the existing shortcomings in the organization of recording and predicting CMF at various stages, this problem does not lose its severity. Moreover, the majority of authors point out the need for further research in this direction, as well as their early implementation in practical health care.

Literature

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