Problem statement. The reorientation of national railway machine building to intensive development assumes the need to solve a set of interconnected and interrelated problems in the legislative, regulatory, financial, economic, educational, personnel and other areas. The task of finding new ways to improve the socio-economic efficiency of the railway sector is particularly important in the conditions of market economy. One of these ways is to improve the quality of personnel is the use of effective personnel policies. As you know the most important and significant resource for the engineering enterprise, regardless of automation, are still personnel. Human resources are one of the most important aspects of the theory and practice of management. Company personnel policy should properly be able to perform in order to effectively manage the personnel. It necessitates a study of the state of human resourcing companies of Ukrainian carriage companies.
Analysis of last researching and publications. New conceptual and methodological approaches to research problems of formation and implementation of personnel policies study such scientists: O. Guba, K. Lazanovska. O. Voronko determines the personnel policy as a universal lever. B. Tkachuk and A. Lapteva explore questions of effective labor force providing industrial enterprises in general and at regional level. R. Darmits developed approaches to human resourcing from a position of globalization and international competitiveness.
- Goncharova, O. Volska, V. Bukiashvyly and B. Sherbak define the essence of the human resourcing mechanism of the economy and its place in the economic system of society.
Allocation of outstanding issues of the problem. However, human resourcing in the branch context investigate a small number of scientists, which makes the urgency of further research to assess human resourcing of carriage building companies.
The goal of article. The main goal of article is evaluation of the current state of the carriage building sub-sector of machine building industry, and forming an effective system of human resourcing.
Results and discussion. One of the basic branches of machine building industry is transportation building, which includes the following sub-sectors: railway building, shipbuilding, automotive and aviation industry. Railway machine building creates the lion’s share of all machine building products due to the strategic importance of rail transport and railways, is a major transporter of passenger traffic and trade flows [2, с. 260].
Sector Railway machine building is part of general engineering, emphasizing the existence of common processes with other shestmy subsectors that make up this industry. Each production process provides for a set of professions and qualifications, that provide its functioning.
On the territory of modern Ukraine subsector appeared over a century ago and is given powerful enterprises, which are the flagships of the national economy. Railway transportation should to have the following technical and economic characteristics such as, save it as a major priority position of the main kind of transport not only today, but in the long term. Railway connect continuous rail connection most industrial and agricultural enterprises and provide the possibility of traffic equally in all seasons and days, have high lead and throughput at relatively low transportation costs [3, с. 198].
In turn, locomotive building (deisel locomotive manufacturing, electric locomotive building) and carriage building belong to the railway engineering.
Railway machine building appeared in Ukraine in ХІХ century with construction of factories for the production of locomotives and cars, as well as workshops and repair [1, с. 235]. It should also be noted that production of sub-sector declined significantly because of the reduction purchases by Russia, [12, с. 101].
However, according to the State Statistics Service carriage building production growth in January – February 2016 increased by 44 % compared the relevant month last year [11, с. 134]. According to the German Advisory Group, there are two schemes out of this situation through public procurement: modernization of rolling stock Ukrainian state railways system or renewal energy turbines, generators and related equipment in power plants Ukraine to improve energy effectiveness of production [10, с. 15]. There are number of barriers about supply of the Ukrainian carriage engineering products to European markets: different standards of track width, the share of railway transport in cargo transportation European market is only 20%, the presence of the European quality certificate [1, с. 236].
Thus, railway machine building sub-sector in Ukraine, despite the obstacles is perspective. Enterprises in the sector are operating for Ukrainian customers and overseas. The plants are producing new cars that meet the requirements of customers,
increasing their competitiveness on foreign markets. Also, upgrading older models of cars are made. Production of freight cars, passenger cars and trains are developed, so there is a need for further study of human resourcing sub-sectors.
Technological processes need to structure an appropriate professional and qualifications, in this case on process and production cycle carriage building. Because each technology provides grouping of knowledge regarding the process.
Specialized enterprises equipped with the latest equipment, automated and mechanized production line for the production and repair of wagons and their parts and components and the availability of highly specialized engineering personnel form the basis of modern domestic carriage and car-repair production.
Today in Ukraine there are five carriage building companies (excluding carriage repair plant) (pic.1).
Pic. 1 Characteristics of products manufactured by enterprises carriage engineering [4; 5; 6; 7; 8]
This list of companies on pic.1 doesn’t include PJSC “Stakhanov Railway Car Building Works”. In the past it was one of the leaders of carriage building industry of Ukraine, but it stopped the production in 2015 year. Because, the company is located in the temporarily occupied territory, most of the equipment exported to Russia.
Also, as of January 1, 2016 PJSC “Luganskteplovoz” has ceased functioning, the company produced all types of locomotives and freight locomotives. There was a reason for the lack of orders and the economic and political situation [9, с. 117].
More detail the business, representing subsector railway engineering are consider. PJSC “Dniprovagonmash” is one of Ukraine companies design and production of freight wagons for main railways and various industries. More than 150 models of freight wagons were developed at the enterprise. Assets of the company have broadest nomenclature of wagon products in Ukraine and CIS countries. One advantage of this company is the availability of equipment for production of up to 6 different types of rolling stock at a time
PJSC “Azovzagalmash” is a large building company in Ukraine that has modern production facilities, research laboratories and qualified personnel. The company produces tanks, modern closed wagons and hopper wagons, filling systems, power bridge loaders and gantry cranes, equipment for nuclear power plants, armored corps; domain and mining equipment; Equipment for the production of steel. All the created equipment has Ukrainian certificates that confirming its high technical level. The company is constantly developing new car models.
About State enterprise “Dnipropetrovsk scientific-industrial complex”: electric locomotives trunk release in the near future is not planned. In fact, the plant has been manufacturing industrial career and mine electric locomotives.
Ltd. “Kharkov Railway Car Building Works” provides production and repair of passenger wagons, but today mainly performs major repair to extend service life of cars.
The leader of this industry in Ukraine is PJSC “Kryukov Railway Car Building Works”. The company has a complete production cycle, from the creation of commercial and technical production idea to supplies of finished products. The company produces locomotives for cargo and passenger railway cars, spare parts and accessories for railway transport, metro and metro wagons, floor and tunnel escalators, military engineering and road machinery, containers for transporting bulk cargoes, large welded steel, welding electrodes, and others. PJSC “Kryukov Railway Car Building Works” has the European quality certificate ISO, American AAA and certificate for the right to teach employees of the requirements of IRIS – International Railway Industry Standard. The plant produced commercially as passenger and freight wagons. PJSC “Kryukov Railway Car Building Works” has the advantage as the possibility of rapid readjust to the new products, which allows to expand the existing product catalog of goods every year. In the context of analysis of the main representatives of the railway sub-sector, we can do such conlusion: PJSC “KVSZ” is the main enterprise which has a complete production cycle, and this demonstrates the functioning of all processes. So, this company has all list nomenclature of professions and qualifications characteristic to this sub-sector.
Technological preparation carriage-building and car-repair production is based on the achievements of technology and production and to significantly raise its technical level. Technology of carriage building provides a manufacturing process that consists of a large number of stages. In this case, the product created by the company, held various production and to the production stage. Thus, there is the problem of training and availability of qualified personnel for each production process.
The study examined in carriage-building and car-repair production is a foundations of processes: treatments, the choice pieces, the surface quality of machined products, precision machining and allowances at her home base components; ways of machining of flat, shaped and other forms of surfaces; methods of making standard parts – wheels, axles, side frames and girders over-spring, boxwood buildings and elements spring suspension, parts of automatic coupler devices and brake equipment; assembly processes bodies and internal layout of the equipment, the nature of the connection of parts and components, the principles of mechanization and automation of assembly work; design principles and other devices [13, с. с.33-38].
Technological processes of manufacturing, repair, maintenance, dismantling cars and their parts are allocated to the operation, transitions, passages, techniques and movement. Technological operation is part of the process and it is performed by one or a group of employees at one workplace, and in automated production — without the employees or under their supervision. The necessity of competitive products require improvement technological processes and the technological equipment. Thus, there is a problem that the engineer in current conditions should not only perform a greater volume of work, but also efficiently perform data operations. This implies the involvement of professional and qualified employees of different profiles preparation at every stage of the production process.
Today the railway sector is affected by the economic crisis and is represented by several carriage works that operate in these conditions. In the subject area of research, results and staffing PJSC “KVSZ”, PJSC “Dniprovagonmash”; PJSC “Azovzagalmash” is analyzed (tabl. 1 – 3). Statistical indicators for the analysis of interval time series used to change a reasonable assessment of business results of enterprises: the average number of dynamics interval with equal intervals ( ),chain ( ) and the average growth rate ( ).
Activity of PJSC “KVSZ” in 2011 – 2015 years
|1||Revenue from product sales,
|, %||‒||17||— 48||-25||-56||‒||-28|
|3||Wages fund to the volume of sales,%||6,81||7,10||11,3||10,3||16,7||10,4||‒|
|4||Average number of employees, persons||8030||8450||8409||7084||5659||4428||‒|
|, %||‒||5||-1||-16||— 20||‒||-8|
According in table 1, revenue from realization of production PJSC “KVSZ” increased in 2012 compared to 2011 to 1,038,331 thousand USD, and in 2013 fell sharply by 191 % compared to 2012. The next two years, revenue from realization of production tended to decrease at the end of 2015 was 1,246362 thousand UAH to 6177810 thousand UAH – in 2011. Wages fund beginning increased by 22 % in 2012 compared to 2011, then gradually declined during 2013–2015 and in 2015 amounted to 210257.9 thousand UAH. Overall wages fund decreased from 2011 to 2015 by 80 %. Overall revenue from sales decreased at the same rate as wages fund, except 2012 when there was growth indicators. On average over the period the share of wages fund to sales of products amounted to 10.4 %. Average number of employees on PJSC “KVSZ” as of 2015 was 5659 people to 8030 people in 2011. As a result, the average number of employees during 2011–2015 decreased by 70 %.
Analysis of business results in PJSC “Azovzahalmash” for the same period is required.
Activity of PJSC “Azovzahalmash” in 2011 – 2015 years
|1||Revenue from product sales,
|3||Wages fund to the volume of sales,%||3,3||4,7||6,8||37,5||92,2||29||‒|
|4||Average number of employees, persons||12884||13931||12170||9919||5512||6704||‒|
According to the table, revenues from realization of production PJSC “Azovzahalmash” constantly decreased during 2011–2015: from 11804616 thousand UAH in 2011 to 170639 thousand UAH in 2015. Wages fund decreased at the same rate throughout the period. Reducing the number of employees in 2015. compared to 2014 was 44 %. The average number of employees in 2015 was 5512 people. Of course, this reduction depends on the decrease in production and sales company.
Analysis of business results in PJSC “Dniprovagonmash” during 2011–2015 years.
Activity of PJSC “Dniprovagonmash” in 2011 – 2015 years
|1||Revenue from product sales,
|3||Wages fund to the volume of sales,%||5,5||7,3||10,2||19,8||82,0||25||‒|
|4||Average number of employees, persons||3991||4111||3457||2278||1253||3773||‒|
This table shows that revenues from sales PJSC “Dniprovagonmash”rapidly decreased, last year the implementation rate of reduction was 84 %. In 2015 revenue from sales amounted to only 61213 thousand UAH. Wages fund decreased from 227427 thousand UAH – in 2011 to 50205 thousand – in 2015. As a result, the average number of employees during 2011-2015 decreased and in 2015 it was – 1253 people.
Due to the indicators on tab. 1 – 3, we can do the conclusions, that today is decline in production in all businesses and they must adopt anti-crisis measures.
PJSC “Azovzahalmash” focused efforts on execution of contracts in the heavy engineering, а PJSC “Dniprovagonmash” carries out repair of passenger wagons for theUkrainian Railways. PJSC “KVSZ” is the most productive company, which, unlike the previously mentioned companies have orders from the Ukrainian Railways and it is constantly looking for new markets [10, с. 117]. Each of these companies has its own unique personnel structure.
Conclusions and proposal. Thus, each technological process of wagon company of railway sub-sector has own internal personnel policy. It should to provide the optimal balance between the needs of the enterprise, the current legislation, the state of the labor market and processes of human resourcing, namely attracting specialists respective professions and qualifications.
Сan suppose that is interconnection between vocational qualification responsibility of personnel and revenue from product sales and wage fund. It should consider the extent to which vocational qualification responsibility affects to the results of their work. Therefore, further research vocational qualification responsibility should be determined only within a specific business entity – PJSC “KVSZ” taking into account uniqueness of their human resourcing. As the search for effective ways of human resourcing is a prerequisite for growth and improve the economic situation of machine building industry.