Науки о Земле
Authors: Okhonniyozov M1,2,4,., Li Yaoming1,2, Li Kaihui1,2, Fan Lianlian1,2, Madaminov A.A 2,3,
1. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, CAS, Urumqi 830011, China
2. CAS Researcher Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia (Dushanbe), Dushanbe, 734063, Tajikistan
3. Institute of Botany, Plant Physiology and Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe 734017, Tajikistan
4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Productivity of semi savannas pastures of North-West Tajikistan: determination of changes in the structure and productivity of Prangos pabularia under the influence of N and P fertilizers
Продуктивность полусаванных пастбищ Северо-Западного Таджикистана: определение изменений в структуре и продуктивности Prangos pabularia под воздействием N и P удобрений.
Abstract: The paper presents the results of changes in the productivity and structure of the Yugan communities in the Ziddi tract (the southern slope of the Gissar ridge, 2000 m ) under the influence of nitrogen fertilizers. Yugan is one of the highly productive natural forage lands of the Pamir-Alai grassy ecosystems. Yugan fodder (Prangos pabularia Lindl.) — Is a perennial large herb of the umbrella family, ephemeroid. This type of powerful pricing, dominant with a wide ecological range, has a landscape value. Different doses of nitrogen on the background of phosphate fertilizers were studied.
В статье представлены результаты изменений продуктивности и структуры юганских сообществ в урочище Зидди (южный склон Гиссарского хребта, 2000 м) под влиянием азотных удобрений. Юган является одним из высокопродуктивных природных кормовых угодий Памиро-Алайской травянистой экосистемы. Юганский корм (Prangos pabularia Lindl.) — многолетнее крупное растение семейства зонтичных, эфемероид. Этот тип доминирующий с широким экологическим диапазоном, имеет ландшафтное значение. Были изучены разные дозы азота на фоне фосфорных удобрений.
Key words: Tajikistan, pastures, fertilizers, productivity , Prangos pabularia .
Forage yield and variability are closely tied to weather and climate. Although you can’t control the weather, you can manage your pastures to deal with the challenges of your local conditions. By working with the weather, you can improve pasture productivity and reduce drought risk, while also contributing to a healthy environment by reducing soil erosion, improving water quality and maintaining wildlife habitat . The functional composition of a community depends both on intra- and interspecific trait variability. The proportion of both components, as well as the overall amount of trait variation explained, depends on the habitat studied. In grasslands, important determinants of a plant species’ trait values are not only temperature, precipitation and soil conditions, but also land-use intensity . Beside responding to nutrient supply, climate and soil conditions, trait values of a plant species are also affected by the plants’ local neighborhood . To test for such relationships, grasslands are very useful study systems as they are managed with varying intensity and globally rank among the ecosystems with the highest species richness at small spatial scales .
Poor pasture and animal performance can be caused by many factors, including mineral disorders. Many of the soils are weathered and low in nutrients. The soils may have other features that also limit pasture growth eg shallow depth, acidity and salinity. An assessment of these factors is a necessary part of making better fertilizer decisions. Fertilization can be a profitable way to improve pasture. Production can usually be increased two to three times or more with a well planned fertilization and management program. For optimum pasture growth all essential nutrients must be present in sufficient amounts. If any nutrient is deficient, pasture growth will be limited by this deficiency, even if all other nutrients are in abundance. For grass pastures to be productive, first priority should be given to meeting nitrogen needs. Grasses require large quantities of nitrogen and respond vigorously when fertilized with this nutrient. . Changes in grazing management, stocking rate and fodder conservation may be needed to capture the benefit of increased pasture growth. If used correctly, fertilizers can decrease the amount of pollutants in runoff and leaching by increasing the pasture groundcover and utilizing available nutrients. Fertilizing, weed control, and rotational grazing increases production from pastures, resulting in greater livestock production. Fertilizing and controlling weeds on hay lands also increases production. Nitrogen (N) increases both grass yield and protein content. It also improves the vigor of grass plants, which can thicken stands and reduce weed invasion. When adequate soil moisture is present, economical rates of nitrogen more than double forage production. Phosphorus (P) fertilizer also is needed on many pastures in Tajikistan. Phosphate fertilizers can be applied with the nitrogen in either spring or fall.
The plant communities of highlands are widely used as pastures and hayfields and remain the most important source of feed for livestock in Tajikistan. The total area of these pastures is more than 2 million hectares, of which 600 thousand hectares are occupied by large grasses of summer use. The large grass semi-savannahs include, first of all, the formation of the Yugan stern, species of the genus ferula, deanasila, katran and etc. Formations of the Yugan fodder in Tajikistan are widespread on the southern slope of the Gissar Range, as well as on the ridges of Peter I and Darvaz. Fragmentally occur on the Zeravshan, Turkistan, partly Kuramin ridges and the Western Pamir. Yugan fodder (Prangos pabularia Lindl.) is the main dominant in the Yugan communities, widely represented in the mountains of Western Tian Shan, in Iran, Afghanistan and the Himalayas.
Yugan is one of the highly productive natural forage lands of the Pamir-Alai grassy ecosystems. In the Southern Pamir-Alai, the Yugan communities are found at altitudes from 1000 to 3200 m above sea level. m. According to the research of M. Nazarov , in Gissaro-Darvaz, Yugan are spread to heights from 1,200 to 3,400 m and the total productivity of pure jugan in various associations ranges from 6 to 56 c/ha. On the Ferula-Yugan community of the Gissar ridge, at an altitude of 3100 m, the stock of elevated phytomass during 1972-1978. varies from 20.2 to 36.8 c/ha and at an altitude of 2350 m (end of Siyokuh) for the period 2002-2007. — from 45.3 to 63.5 c/ha. In general, Yugan have a high potential for productivity. Yugan is a valuable medicinal and honey plant. In this regard, botanists and environmentalists are faced with the task of conducting additional research to study the productivity of the Yugan and its community; develop integrated methods for increasing productivity and sustainable use, and recommend measures to protect them in a changing climate.
Material and methods
This study was established in the North-West Tajikistan in Ziddi station (2000 m above sea level m.). The type of vegetation is large grass semi-savannah, geranium-Prangos community.
Figure 1. Location map of the study area.
The high-mountainous areas of the Gissar range belong to the belts of an insufficiently humid climate, with moderately warm summers and moderately severe winters. The climate of the study area is characterized by sharp continentality with significant daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. In the fall, snow usually falls in early to mid-November, sometimes even in October. According to long-term data, the greatest amount of precipitation falls in December-April, the least in July-August. Total precipitation is relatively high and averages 950 mm. The lowest air temperature is observed in January and February, on some days the thermometer shows –22 … -24 ° C (Fig.2). In mid-March, the average monthly air temperature becomes positive, although frosts are occasionally observed in May (-5 ° C). The average monthly air temperature in May ranges from 8-10 ° C to 15 ° C, and in July from 15 ° C to 20 ° C. The sum of positive temperatures during the growing season is 1500 ° C.
Figure 2. Dynamics of air temperature and precipitation and its linear trends in North-West Tajikistan 2000- 2017.
The soils of the hospital are typical brown, with the release of the parent rock and with rubbly-stony limestone. Humus in the upper horizon contains 3.5–5%. The vegetation of the study area begins to vegetate in late April and early May as the soil surface is cleared from snow cover. Due to the diversity of micro relief, it is rich in various formations. The vegetation of the experimental site is a mountainous large grass semi-savanna, the formation is prangos, the forb-grass-prangos communities (Prangos pabularia, Geranium callinum, Astragalus corydalinus, Dactylis glomerata, Crepissibirica).
Different doses of nitrogen (30 and 90 kg N per 1 ha) on the background of phosphate (30 kg P2O5 per 1 ha) fertilizers were studied. Experience options: 1 — control (N0P0), 2 — N3, 3 –P3, 4 — N3P3 and 5 — N9P3, repeated 4 times (Fig 3). The location of the plot is random. Mineral fertilizers, in accordance with the variants of the experiment, scattered superficially on 04.24.2018, at the beginning of the active growing season of pasture grasses. During the period of maximum plant growth, according to the generally accepted methodology, in each replica, monitoring of plant height, coverage and number of species was carried out. The productivity of the grass stand was determined by mowing the above-ground mass at each repetition at sites of 1 m2 (100×100 cm). Analysis of the types were carried out in green. In dry form, the weight of each plant and the gross yield of the stand were determined.
Figure 3. Settings an experimental site. Note: N3 treatment- need CO(NH2) 26.5g/m2 ; N9 treatment- need CO(NH2) 219.5g/m2 ; P3 treatment –need P2O5 6.75g/m2 ;
Results and Discussion
Yugan fodder (Prangos pabularia Lindl.) — Is a perennial large herb of the umbrella family, ephemeroid. This type of powerful pricing, dominant with a wide ecological range, has a landscape value. In favorable conditions, Yugan is characterized by high growth rates, and its powerful rosette leaves and large generative shoots occupy the upper tier of the grass stand.
During the growing season in 2018, Ziddi received better results in the Yugan (Table 1). Warm weather in winter favored the early vegetation of vegetation. In the middle of April, on the southern slope of the Gissar Range, in the vicinity of the village of Kalon (3 km to Ziddi station), the Ferula kuhistanica, the dominant of vegetation, showed massive flowering for 20-25 days earlier.
Monitoring and recording of the grass stand productivity on the experimental plots of the Geranium-Yugan community (Prangos pabularia, Geranium collinum Community) were conducted on June 21, 2018 during the period of mass flowering of the dominant — Yugan fodder. At this time, the flowering individuals of the Yugan had a height of 160-180 cm under control (N0P0) and 200-220 cm on variants N3P3 and N9P3. The gross yield of the dry mass of the Geranium-Yugan community on the control (N0P0) plots averaged 450.7 g / m2, in variants N3 — 756.9, P3 — 614.0, N3P3 — 839.9 and N9P3 — 919.1 g / m2; the dry mass of the Yugan was equal to 40.0, 55.8, 46.1, 68.6 and 63.6% of the total yield, respectively. This year, an unusually large individual of the Yugan (80-85%) blossomed and fruited, resulting in a record harvest of green mass and seeds. The share of hill Geranium in the total yield of the control plots was 19.0%, in variants N3 — 12.7, P3 — 21.3, N3P3 — 13.6 and N9P3 — 14.4%. The species richness of the grass stand did not change significantly: the control (N0P0) averaged 13 species per 1 m2, in variants N3 — 10, P3 — 12, N3P3 — 13 and N3P3 — 13 plant species.
Table 1. Structure and productivity of the Geranium-Yugan community.
|Plant name||Dry weight, g / m2|
Note: *) — less than 1.0% — Elaeosticta hirtula, Lathyrus pratensis, Astragalus quisqualis, Medicago lupulina, Plantago lanseolata, Alcea nudiflora, Erophila verna, Scabiоsa songоrica, Galium transcaucasicum.
Figure 4. The species richness and productivity of the Geranium-Yugan community
Table 2. Crop dry weight of the Ziddi — Yugan community.
Note: All experienced options significantly exceeds the standard (group I)
Yugan pastures under the influence of overgrazing (overgrazing) are severely degraded. In open pastures, the gross yield of the above-ground mass was lower compared with the use of haying (Table 1): in the control plot — by 3.3 times and fertilized (N9P3) — 6.8 times. Therefore, to restore the productivity of Yugan pastures, it is necessary to regulate their use in accordance with the biological characteristics of the main forage plants and through the use of a hayland-pasture rotation system. Annual early grazing negatively affects young plants, especially those of the Yugan. In this regard, on gentle plots, it is advisable to use the Yugan communities for haymaking, with livestock grazing in the aftermath, or carrying out autumn grazing in dry grass.
We thank Yusupov Sino, Ma Xuexi, Luo Yan, Tursunov Usmonkhuja for their assistance with sampling and analysis. The research was supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences. We express our gratitude to the Dushanbe Research Center for Ecology and Environment of Central Asia .
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